Master List Research Notes
http://maidenshows.ryasrealm.com

Archive | Methodology | References

Archive
Flyers/Posters | Miscellaneous | Programs | Publications Clippings | Publications Notes | Shirts | Tickets

Methodology
The order of precedence for my sources follows as:

Reliable Resources (all dates/locations substantiated by these kinds of sources are listed in dark orange)
1. Media-reported concert reviews. Concert reviews coming from newspapers, magazines, and major media web sites tend to be the most reliable source of information. This is because these media groups a have earned a reputation for accuracy for conducting control measures, such as fact-checking before printing information, and they provide the "trifecta" necessary to confirm a concert did happen - date, location, and event details. Media groups also usually publish their concert reviews shortly after the concert happened, thus reducing the liability of incorrect date and location information while, at the same time, establishing for fact that the concert did happen. The closer the review to the date of the concert, the better, which means that daily publications tend to me more reliable than ones published less frequently. One caveat: no matter how good the control measures are that these groups implement, they do make infrequent mistakes. The most common error is publishing a review after its intended publication date without correcting the date-related language of the review. For example: when a review reads "last night..." and it was held back from publication for a later date without being re-edited, the date-related language becomes misleading. Such examples are obvious when the "last night" error wrongly refers to a date and location already established to be another date and location by other evidence.

2. Fan concert reviews. A fan review is a reliable source as long as the fan writes in a journal or publishes on a web site his/her account of a concert shortly after the event occured - preferably within a week. Several things have to be taken into consideration, however. The fan must have the "trifecta" listed in his review. Without all three key pieces of information being tied together in one source, a tour date and location cannot be listed as verified unless there is other corroborating evidence from another source to support it. Also keep in mind that a fan review can be misleading. Many fans now are digging up old journal entries and posting them on their own blogs or web sites, and in the absence of any component of the "trifecta," they research information from another web site and list the researched information as part of the original journal entry. In most cases of an online fan source, an email to the individual can help determine the authenticity and reliability of the source. Many fans do not realize the historical value of their online expositions, and fortunately, when confronted with this information and how it is valuable to conducting research about the band, they are honest and willingly helpful.

Resources of Questionable Reliability (all dates/locations substantiated by these kinds of sources are listed in orange)
3. Multiple isolated fan accounts, long after the event occured. If several fans with intimate knowledge of the event recount the same dates, locations, and other details months or years after afterward, then this can very well be considered as a reliable source. However, there is one major issue with collective memory that makes the reliability of this type of source questionable. Psychological tests have revealed that memory can be manipulated even on a massive scale: if enough people are exposed to the same piece of misinformation over a period of time, they will remember that misinformation as part of their original experience. This was the very case of the Moscow 1993 shows when several fans, having believed the dates listed by the band in the multimeida re-issue of A Real Live/Dead One to be correct, actually remembered those dates despite a Moscow newspaper review which listed different information. Because collective memory mishaps such as this are rare, and because most collective memories usually can be corroborated by other evidence, this type of source usually can be of benefit.

4. Publicized individual tour dates. Print publications and institutional web sites receive press releases from management and report tour dates as they are informed of them, yet they rarely, if ever, make corrections to these dates and locations as changes in the itinerary occur. However, if a local newspaper reports a concert as scheduled to happen anytime from approximately a week prior to the day of the concert, then this resource tends to be reliable because of the proximity of the report to the actual date. The longer the distance between the report and the planned date, the less reliable the report is. Read "Tour Itineraries" for more information on publicized tour dates.

5. Concert flyers. While these are very good resources indicating city, date, and venue, they can cause quite a bit of confusion when the band is forced to cancel and/or reschedule dates. One thing to note: they have a slight edge over concert tickets because concert flyers sometimes are reprinted for a rescheduled date, whereas new tickets are rarely, if ever, re-issued for a re-scheduled date. Concert flyers also pose an additional problem: since they have no publication date on them, it can be difficult to determine which one has the correct date when there exists flyers with conflicting dates. In cases such as this, other resources must be used to help determine which flyer is the original and which is the rescheduled date.

6. Concert tickets. While these are very good resources indicating city, date, and venue because they are not printed unless final arrangements have been made between management and the venue, they can cause quite a bit of confusion when the band is forced to cancel and/or reschedule dates. Tickets with the original date and location are usually used for the new date and location as a convenience and cost-cutting measure by the venue and/or promoter. This is why it is not uncommon to come across a ticket stub with the wrong date, and in some cases, with the wrong date crossed-out by a fan who attended the concert and the correct date written in its place. This was the very case with the Portsmouth gig originally scheduled for 3 June 1980. Two tickets were discovered with the date crossed out and and "1 July" written in place. The mystery was solved by an account from a fan who attended the show, and it was further corroborated by a Sounds article establishing that the band had rescheduled the date.

7. Official Iron Maiden publications and merchandise. This is not to be confused with tour-related merchandise. This is, instead, regular merchandise unrelated to concerts, such as DVDs, CDs, and books. While one would think that these kinds of merchandise would be have accurate information, these tend to be fraught with inaccuracies. Management has made it clear that tour dates and locations are considered bonus material to merchandise and not worthy of being thoroughly checked for accuracy. However, it is clear that these dates go through some minimal checking because some errors listed on tour merchandise have been corrected. On the other hand, sometimes merchandise includes band interviews or quotes from the band, management, or tour support crew, and these sources occasionally provide a few nuggets of reliable information

8. Iron Maiden biographies and collector books. These things tend to be hit/miss. One would expect an author to do a good deal of research before presenting anything as fact, yet many authors print incorrect tour dates and locations because they either borrowed them from other authors or they took them directly from tour programs or tour itineraries without checking for accuracy. Nonetheless, biographies and collector books can and often do provide a good amount of fairly reliable information through band interviews and tour narrations. Any date or location written about with detail can be considered potentially accurate, but dates and locations merely listed without commentary should be suspect. A good example of this is in Gary Bushell's Running Free, in which he lists the band playing in the UK on various dates in early September 1980, but narrates that the band opted out of playing the UK in early September, but instead, took a vacation at the Adriatic Coast. It should also be noted that biographies and collector books make for excellent resources when they feature reproductions of concert flyers, tickets, tour shirts, programs, etc., such as Marco Gamba's Iron Maiden Collectibles.

9. Tour shirts. Tour shirts are problematic as a resource because they are sometimes printed before the band's management has the tour arrangements finalized. Additionally, plans do change mid-tour for various reasons, and it is too expensive to re-print shirts with the correct dates. Therefore, many tour shirts have the wrong information on them. However, some tour shirts prove to be more beneficial than others. Localized tour shirts, such as shirts specialized for just a specific portion of the tour, tend to be more reliable because management does not print them as early in the tour as they do with the rest of the tour shirts. The reason why: it's quite difficult, or at least quite embarrassing, to sell a shirt specific for one concert location (e.g. "Chicago Mutants," 30 September 1983) with an incorrect date or location. However, it still happens - the band printed a shirt for Essen, dated 9 July 2000, but they had to reschedule for 6 November after Janick's accident the night before in Mannheim.

10. Tour programs. Tour programs are questionable for the same reason tour shirts are questionable: they are usually printed before the tour starts and are never re-printed to reflect mid-tour changes. These are also considered less accurate than tour shirts due to the fact that management does not normally print programs specialized for just one concert or one region of a leg of a tour, although, management does print separate programs for separate tour legs. This is important to note because the band traditionallly has played Japan at the end of the tour, and management has waited as late as possible before printing programs for that particular leg. As a result, the Japanese tour programs usually reflect more accurate tour dates - not just for the Japanese leg - but for the entire tour since these programs tend to reflect the changes in the tour itinerary.

11. Tour itineraries. For being a source coming from the band and/or reputable media outlets, one would expect tour itineraries to be a great way to verify dates and locations, especially since they list the whole tour. The problem is that these are usually published before the tour begins. While updated tour itineraries are commonplace on the internet, older media sources rarely published updates. As such, tour itineraries have no more value than giving you a baseline to work from and further corroborate or negate individual dates and locations through other resources. The No Prayer for the Dying Tour presents a great example of the problems with tour itineraries. The band released several different itineraries before starting off the tour, and since none have a publication date on them, it is difficult to discern which dates and locations are correct without using other resources.

12. Isolated fan accounts. Any single fan accounts that come months or years after the fact tend not to be reliable because of the nature of the human mind to forget details over time. Fans who did not attend the event are especially not reliable because they base their information on other accounts and not on first-hand knowledge. However, if a fan reveals associative memories, such as remembering a certain date or location because of its close association to another memory (such as a concert date coinciding with a birthday or some other notable experience), then this source should be considered potentially reliable. It should also be noted that any information about primary sources (e.g. ticket stubs, programs, etc.), coming from another party that is not considered authoritative or scholarly, should not be accepted as fact unless that party provides verifiable proof of the source. In other words, it is not prudent to take someone's word for it that "such and such piece of evidence exists because my friend told me about it!" or "such and such piece of evidence exists because I saw it with my own eyes!" While Iron Maiden fans have proved to be mostly honest and very helpful, their memories betray their their benign intentions.

13. Fan-created tourographies. This is the bottom of the barrel, and it is so for a valid reason. Most fan site tourographies propagate the same errors from other fan sites by copying the information from other fan sites and accepting that information as fact without making any serious effort to check the accuracy of the information used. However, not all fan sites are like this, and some prove to be of value because the authors conduct their own research and publish their sources and findings. Nonetheless, because of the problems inherent in many fan sites, and because these sites are secondary sources of information, most should be disregarded. A good thing is that this fan site is trying to fix that problem by making the information here available to the public, in addition to authorizing, upon request, the republication of the findings here at other sites.

When conflicts occur between sources, the type of source rated higher on this list is generally accepted as the correct one.

 


References

Tour Dates | Audio Recordings | Video Recordings

Tour Dates
Primary Sources
You can find these at the archive section by clicking here.

Secondary Sources
You can find a list of what specific information I have collected from these sources and numerous miscellaneous sources by clicking here.

Bowler, Dave and Brian Dray. Infinite Dreams: Iron Maiden. London: Boxtree Limited, 1996.
 Bowler's and Dray's book is mostly a narrative with very few hard facts presented, and as such, has limited research value. I have confined my use of this source to corroborating information found in other sources.

Bridge House, The. "Bridge House Diaries." www.thebridgehousee16.com/diary.html. 30 January 2007.
 The Bridge House, a venue that Iron Maiden once frequented in the band's earliest days as a local act, has conducted its own in-house research and presented the results on its web site. The site managers used a methodology of investigating its records and posting the information at face value. This means that the dates the site lists for its guest acts are not necessarily accurate because they do not prove the musical acts actually performed. However, the site is valuable because they have conducted real research to reveal, at minimum, Iron Maiden and other bands had been scheduled to play there on certain dates.

Bushell, Gary. Running Free: The Official Story of Iron Maiden, 2nd ed. London: Zomba Books, 1985. Reprint, 1987.
 Bushell's book is the earliest in-depth history of the band and it has served as the baseline for most later research conducted by other authors. It serves as a valuable resource because of its position as an early text covering the formation of the band, through the band's formative years, to its height as an international attraction. It provides commentary about the band's whereabouts as a touring act and a few reprints of primary documents and artifacts in addition to summarizing the band's tour history in several segmented tourography charts. While Bushell's book proves easy to reference, it is quite deceptive because in several cases his narrative does not match his tourography charts. In such cases, I have accepted his narratives as more likely to be accurate because of their details.

Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Collectibles. Genova: Moving Sound Books, 1997.
 This is the book that started the more recent spurt of fans in the digital-era creating and researching their own versions of Iron Maiden's tourography. Although fraught with many errors, it, nonetheless, is the base guide or inspiration to most fan-created versions of Iron Maiden's tourgraphy. I used the tourography as a baseline until I was able to verify or nullify most of the dates and locations in it through the acquisition of primary and secondary resources. Additionally, I have contacted the author, and he has been very helpful in providing sources and oral histories of the band's Italian tour dates over the years.

Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Companion. Genova: Moving Media & Arts, 2001.
 This book is one of the most valuable resources available because it provides reprints of hundres of primary sources, such as ticket stubs, tour shirts, and flyers. Many of the dates and locations in my tourography are verified using artifacts reprinted in this book.

Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Companion: Update 1. Genova: Moving Media & Arts, 2004.
 See notes for above.

Gooch, Curt and Jeff Suhs. KISS Alive Forever: The Complete Touring History. New York: Billboard Books, 2002.
 Gooch's and Suhs' work is a shining example of exactly how a band's tourography should be researched. These two authors sifted through thousands of ticket stubs, newspaper articles, interviews, and other pieces of evidence to compile not just a raw list of tour dates and locations, but also histories of each concert along with who were the support acts and information as to whether or not the concert was archived in video or audio form. As such, this book is not just an ideal methodological example, but it also serves as a resource for Iron Maiden when the two bands toured Europe together in 1980. While this is a secondary source, and as a result, the information therein technically cannot be accepted as absolute, I have no reason not to believe the findings are reliable.

Heavy Metal Soundhouse, The. "HSMH Archives." www.hmsoundhouse.com/hmsoundhouse/4_archives.htm. 30 January 2007.
 This site is a nice source of primary artifacts of Iron Maiden's early years, including ticket stubs, concert listings, and concert reviews - some of which I have copied and reposted in my own archive. I have used these artifacts to verify some of the early tour dates and locations. While this site contains obvious research value, it has additional value that is not so transparent. Neil Kay, the deejay that helped give Iron Maiden a cult following in London during the band's formative years, is a contributing member of the site and can be reached via email for additional information.

Iron Maiden. The History of Iron Maiden, Part 1: The Early Years. DVD. Columbia Music Video, 2004.
 Official Iron Maiden merchandise has a nasty history of listing inaccurate tour dates and locations. While the tourography in this DVD has a fair amount of errors, the DVD is still a valuable tool because it features numerous primary documents and artifacts. I use Steve Harris' scrapbook and diary as the basis in substantiating most of the early dates and locations before the band's first album came out. There are two things to note, however: the first is that Steve's diary looks so extraordinarily neat and in pristine condition that its authenticity is questionable. I have three theories regarding this: it possibly is authentic because Steve has a reputation as being very controlling; it is a fabricated and/or neatened version of an authentic version specifically designed for presentation for the DVD; or it is a fabrication based on primary documents, such as letters and old notes, and it was specifically fabricated to put all of the information from these documents in one neat package for the DVD. The second thing to note involves both the diary and the scrapbook. I have considered both to be ultimately authoritative based on Steve's controlling personality, assuming that Steve would not offer such items if they did not accurately reflect the band's whereabouts on specific dates.

Iron Maiden Commentary, The
. "Iron Maiden Tours." www.maidenfans.com/imc/?link=tours&url=index&lang=eng. 30 January 2007.
 Simply put, this is a competing tourography/bootleg list that is based on some of the same resources I have used, and the accuracy of this site is heavily based on my research. In fact, most of the primary documents the author hosts on his site originate from my site. Despite this, I list the site as a source because the site author conducts his own primary research, and he has posted links to some of his resources which I have, in turn, investigated myself. We are collaborating together to use my research for his site, which has much greater exposure than my site (the MaidenFans.com site has been around a decade). My ultimate goal is for his nicely packaged and highly informative site (it features much more than a plain tourography and bootleg list - please check it out) to emulate my research and expose it to a greater number of fans.

Judas Priest Info Pages. "Point of Entry." http://members.firstinter.net/markster/POINTOFENTRY.html. 30 January 2007.
 The Judas Priest Info Pages' "Point of Entry" section is an important resource because Iron Maiden toured with Judas Priest in 1981 as a support act, and usually the only way to research a support act is to research the headliner. The value of this site lies mostly in its ticket scans; the tourography section is suspect because it fails to list several dates which I have verified myself through researching newspapers. Two key dates it is missing are Judas Priest's Milwaukee concerts on 10 May and 26 June, the latter date being one in which Iron Maiden was a support act.

New Wave of British Heavy Metal Online Encyclopedia, The
. "Iron Maiden." www.nwobhm.com/maiden.htm. 30 January 2007.
 This intense project is a minimalist history of the band based solely on primary artifacts and documents which are either hosted in their original form on the site, or the site manager has retyped the text from the original artifact verbatim. The site author does a good job of citing his sources, making this site one of the most reliable resources available. I have borrowed quite a bit from the information available here in order to verify some of the early dates and locations on my site. I also believe that some of the scans hosted in my archive, which were originally submitted to me from various contributors, originally came from this here.

Skoog, Robert. "Iron Maiden Tour Index." http://hem.passagen.se/davemurray/tour_index.htm?. 30 January 2007.
 Like the Iron Maiden Collectibles Book by Marco Gamba and Nicola Visintini, Robert Skoog's site has promoted great interest in Iron Maiden's tourography. Skoog has done a fair amount of primary research, but by the time I undertook my project, he had already lost serious interest in his work. Nonetheless, I have used his site as a base tourography to work from. While my work has superceded his by correcting many errors through my own primary research, his site is still a valuable resource because it provides two particular details mine does note: concert venue and supporting acts. Also, since I began my own work, Skoog has been rejuvinated - he picked things back up and now is working on tourographies for other bands, too. We are currently working together to share information and sources.

Stenning, Paul. 30 Years of the Beast. New Malden, UK: Chrome Dreams, 2006.
 Stenning's book is typical of most Iron Maiden biographies - a nice narration with little hard facts. And, like many authors prior to him, he propagates the same problems: he has glaring errors and he adds not much more new information than any previous authors. However, Stenning does the reader a favor by listing his sources at the end of each chapter, and he includes some of his own interviews of band members and persons close to the band.

Wall, Mick. Run to the Hills: The Official Biography of Iron Maiden. London: Sanctuary Publishing Limited, 1998.
 Wall's book is clearly a shameless plagiarism of Gary Bushell's book. A significant portion of Wall's book borrows from Bushell's writing by paraphrasing and, in some cases, copying Bushell's words verbatim. Additionally, many of the primary documents and artifacts in Wall's book are the exact same copies of the ones printed in Bushell's book. The vocalist for Iron Maiden at the time of publication, Blaze Bayley, complained in Fan Club Magazine 55 that the information about him was wrong and that fans should just ignore it. Despite all this, Wall's book has some value because it continues the story of Iron Maiden where Bushell left off. But, this value is limited because in the thirteen years of the band's history that Wall covers beyond Bushell's work, he presents few hard facts. Not only that, his book repeats Bushell's errors and he introduces some of his own errors. As such, I have limited my use of this resource to corroborate information found in other sources.

Contributors
"Casper": no website.
Frostholm, Ole: www.olefoget.dk. Ole has contributed so many primary documents that he is effectively an additional researcher for this site.
Gamba, Marco: www.ironmaidenbooks.com
Johnsson, Thomas. www.sweconpos.com
"juju": no website.
Keddi, Susanne "Suse": no website.
Kouznetsov, Jacob: www.rocktrades.net
Lausen, Thomas: no website.
Miles, John: no website.
"MS": no website.
Noon, Chris: no website.
Parks, Neil: http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/ironpaddy
Rautaneito - Finnish Iron Maiden Fansite. www.rautaneito.com
van Berlo, Jos: no website.
Ylisaari, Trevor: http://tay666.batcave.net/iron.htm.
Zdeno: www.ironmaiden.sk
. Like Ole, Zdeno is a major contributor of primary documents to this site.

 

Audio Recordings
Main Contributors
Bailly, Sébastien: www.ead666.com
Hand, Darren: no website.
Miles, John: no website.
Robb, Steven: www.maidenessex.co.uk. Steven is very scrutinizing in verifying his shows, and he has a large list.
Skoog, Robert: http://hem.passagen.se/davemurray.
Ylisaari, Trevor: http://tay666.batcave.net/iron.htm. Trevor is another trader with a sharp ear who can spot fakes and verify the locations of particular shows.

Additional Contributors
"bouvetøya": no website.
Davies, Gary: no website.
"Heitor": http://www.geocities.com/hmc777300
Mandiuc, Chris: no website. Chris has been instrumental in verifying the authenticity of shows that have come into question.
Parks, Neil: http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/ironpaddy
"Petri": no website.
Vaz, José: http://sowhat.metpage.org/


Video Recordings
Main Contributors
Bailly, Sébastien: www.ead666.com
Guyer, Mike: www.videoverkill.com


Additional Contributors
Smith, Bart: www.bartsmith.republika.pl

 

If you have notes to contribute, please email me.