The order of precedence for my sources follows as:
Resources (all dates/locations substantiated
by these kinds of sources are listed in dark orange)
2. Fan concert reviews. A fan review is a reliable source as long as the fan writes in a journal or publishes on a web site his/her account of a concert shortly after the event occured - preferably within a week. Several things have to be taken into consideration, however. The fan must have the "trifecta" listed in his review. Without all three key pieces of information being tied together in one source, a tour date and location cannot be listed as verified unless there is other corroborating evidence from another source to support it. Also keep in mind that a fan review can be misleading. Many fans now are digging up old journal entries and posting them on their own blogs or web sites, and in the absence of any component of the "trifecta," they research information from another web site and list the researched information as part of the original journal entry. In most cases of an online fan source, an email to the individual can help determine the authenticity and reliability of the source. Many fans do not realize the historical value of their online expositions, and fortunately, when confronted with this information and how it is valuable to conducting research about the band, they are honest and willingly helpful.
of Questionable Reliability (all dates/locations
substantiated by these kinds of sources are listed in orange)
4. Publicized individual tour dates. Print publications and institutional web sites receive press releases from management and report tour dates as they are informed of them, yet they rarely, if ever, make corrections to these dates and locations as changes in the itinerary occur. However, if a local newspaper reports a concert as scheduled to happen anytime from approximately a week prior to the day of the concert, then this resource tends to be reliable because of the proximity of the report to the actual date. The longer the distance between the report and the planned date, the less reliable the report is. Read "Tour Itineraries" for more information on publicized tour dates.
5. Concert flyers. While these are very good resources indicating city, date, and venue, they can cause quite a bit of confusion when the band is forced to cancel and/or reschedule dates. One thing to note: they have a slight edge over concert tickets because concert flyers sometimes are reprinted for a rescheduled date, whereas new tickets are rarely, if ever, re-issued for a re-scheduled date. Concert flyers also pose an additional problem: since they have no publication date on them, it can be difficult to determine which one has the correct date when there exists flyers with conflicting dates. In cases such as this, other resources must be used to help determine which flyer is the original and which is the rescheduled date.
6. Concert tickets. While these are very good resources indicating city, date, and venue because they are not printed unless final arrangements have been made between management and the venue, they can cause quite a bit of confusion when the band is forced to cancel and/or reschedule dates. Tickets with the original date and location are usually used for the new date and location as a convenience and cost-cutting measure by the venue and/or promoter. This is why it is not uncommon to come across a ticket stub with the wrong date, and in some cases, with the wrong date crossed-out by a fan who attended the concert and the correct date written in its place. This was the very case with the Portsmouth gig originally scheduled for 3 June 1980. Two tickets were discovered with the date crossed out and and "1 July" written in place. The mystery was solved by an account from a fan who attended the show, and it was further corroborated by a Sounds article establishing that the band had rescheduled the date.
7. Official Iron Maiden publications and merchandise. This is not to be confused with tour-related merchandise. This is, instead, regular merchandise unrelated to concerts, such as DVDs, CDs, and books. While one would think that these kinds of merchandise would be have accurate information, these tend to be fraught with inaccuracies. Management has made it clear that tour dates and locations are considered bonus material to merchandise and not worthy of being thoroughly checked for accuracy. However, it is clear that these dates go through some minimal checking because some errors listed on tour merchandise have been corrected. On the other hand, sometimes merchandise includes band interviews or quotes from the band, management, or tour support crew, and these sources occasionally provide a few nuggets of reliable information
8. Iron Maiden biographies and collector books. These things tend to be hit/miss. One would expect an author to do a good deal of research before presenting anything as fact, yet many authors print incorrect tour dates and locations because they either borrowed them from other authors or they took them directly from tour programs or tour itineraries without checking for accuracy. Nonetheless, biographies and collector books can and often do provide a good amount of fairly reliable information through band interviews and tour narrations. Any date or location written about with detail can be considered potentially accurate, but dates and locations merely listed without commentary should be suspect. A good example of this is in Gary Bushell's Running Free, in which he lists the band playing in the UK on various dates in early September 1980, but narrates that the band opted out of playing the UK in early September, but instead, took a vacation at the Adriatic Coast. It should also be noted that biographies and collector books make for excellent resources when they feature reproductions of concert flyers, tickets, tour shirts, programs, etc., such as Marco Gamba's Iron Maiden Collectibles.
9. Tour shirts. Tour shirts are problematic as a resource because they are sometimes printed before the band's management has the tour arrangements finalized. Additionally, plans do change mid-tour for various reasons, and it is too expensive to re-print shirts with the correct dates. Therefore, many tour shirts have the wrong information on them. However, some tour shirts prove to be more beneficial than others. Localized tour shirts, such as shirts specialized for just a specific portion of the tour, tend to be more reliable because management does not print them as early in the tour as they do with the rest of the tour shirts. The reason why: it's quite difficult, or at least quite embarrassing, to sell a shirt specific for one concert location (e.g. "Chicago Mutants," 30 September 1983) with an incorrect date or location. However, it still happens - the band printed a shirt for Essen, dated 9 July 2000, but they had to reschedule for 6 November after Janick's accident the night before in Mannheim.
Tour programs. Tour programs
are questionable for the same reason tour shirts are questionable: they are usually
printed before the tour starts and are never re-printed to reflect mid-tour changes.
These are also considered less accurate than tour shirts due to the fact that
management does not normally print programs specialized for just one concert or
one region of a leg of a tour, although, management does print separate programs
for separate tour legs. This is important to note because the band traditionallly
has played Japan at the end of the tour, and management has waited as late as
possible before printing programs for that particular leg. As a result, the Japanese
tour programs usually reflect more accurate tour dates - not just for the Japanese
leg - but for the entire tour since these programs tend to reflect the changes
in the tour itinerary.
12. Isolated fan accounts. Any single fan accounts that come months or years after the fact tend not to be reliable because of the nature of the human mind to forget details over time. Fans who did not attend the event are especially not reliable because they base their information on other accounts and not on first-hand knowledge. However, if a fan reveals associative memories, such as remembering a certain date or location because of its close association to another memory (such as a concert date coinciding with a birthday or some other notable experience), then this source should be considered potentially reliable. It should also be noted that any information about primary sources (e.g. ticket stubs, programs, etc.), coming from another party that is not considered authoritative or scholarly, should not be accepted as fact unless that party provides verifiable proof of the source. In other words, it is not prudent to take someone's word for it that "such and such piece of evidence exists because my friend told me about it!" or "such and such piece of evidence exists because I saw it with my own eyes!" While Iron Maiden fans have proved to be mostly honest and very helpful, their memories betray their their benign intentions.
13. Fan-created tourographies. This is the bottom of the barrel, and it is so for a valid reason. Most fan site tourographies propagate the same errors from other fan sites by copying the information from other fan sites and accepting that information as fact without making any serious effort to check the accuracy of the information used. However, not all fan sites are like this, and some prove to be of value because the authors conduct their own research and publish their sources and findings. Nonetheless, because of the problems inherent in many fan sites, and because these sites are secondary sources of information, most should be disregarded. A good thing is that this fan site is trying to fix that problem by making the information here available to the public, in addition to authorizing, upon request, the republication of the findings here at other sites.
When conflicts occur between sources, the type of source rated higher on this list is generally accepted as the correct one.
You can find these at the archive section by clicking here.
You can find a list of what specific information I have collected from these sources and numerous miscellaneous sources by clicking here.
Bowler, Dave and Brian Dray. Infinite Dreams: Iron Maiden. London: Boxtree Limited, 1996.
Bridge House, The. "Bridge House Diaries." www.thebridgehousee16.com/diary.html. 30 January 2007.
Bushell, Gary. Running Free: The Official Story of Iron Maiden, 2nd ed. London: Zomba Books, 1985. Reprint, 1987.
Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Collectibles. Genova: Moving Sound Books, 1997.
Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Companion. Genova: Moving Media & Arts, 2001.
Gamba, Marco and Nicola Visintini. Iron Maiden Companion: Update 1. Genova: Moving Media & Arts, 2004.
Gooch, Curt and Jeff Suhs. KISS Alive Forever: The Complete Touring History. New York: Billboard Books, 2002.
Heavy Metal Soundhouse, The. "HSMH Archives." www.hmsoundhouse.com/hmsoundhouse/4_archives.htm. 30 January 2007.
Iron Maiden. The History of Iron Maiden, Part 1: The Early Years. DVD. Columbia Music Video, 2004.
Iron Maiden Commentary, The. "Iron Maiden Tours." www.maidenfans.com/imc/?link=tours&url=index&lang=eng. 30 January 2007.
Judas Priest Info Pages. "Point of Entry." http://members.firstinter.net/markster/POINTOFENTRY.html. 30 January 2007.
New Wave of British Heavy Metal Online Encyclopedia, The. "Iron Maiden." www.nwobhm.com/maiden.htm. 30 January 2007.
Skoog, Robert. "Iron Maiden Tour Index." http://hem.passagen.se/davemurray/tour_index.htm?. 30 January 2007.
Stenning, Paul. 30 Years of the Beast. New Malden, UK: Chrome Dreams, 2006.
Wall, Mick. Run to the Hills: The Official Biography of Iron Maiden. London: Sanctuary Publishing Limited, 1998.
If you have notes to contribute, please email me.